In April 1945, The Chief of Staff of the United States Army, General George Marshall asked Major General Leslie Groves Jr. of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to nominate specific targets for bombing for final approval by himself and Secretary of War Henry Stimson. The Target Committee nominated five targets: Kokura, the site of one of Japan's largest munitions plants; Hiroshima, an embarkation port and industrial center that was the site of a major military headquarters; Yokohama, an urban center for aircraft manufacture, machine tools, docks, electrical equipment and oil refineries; Niigata, a port with industrial facilities including steel and aluminum plants and an oil refinery; and Kyoto, a major industrial center. These cities were largely untouched during the nightly bombing raids and the Army Air Forces agreed to leave them off the target list so accurate assessment of the weapon could be made.
At the time of its bombing, Hiroshima was a city of both industrial and military significance. A number of military units were located nearby, the most important of which was the headquarters of Field Marshal Shunroku Hata's Second General Army, which commanded the defense of all of southern Japan, and was located in Hiroshima Castle. Hata's command consisted of some 400,000 men, most of whom were on Kyushu where an Allied invasion was correctly anticipated. Also present in Hiroshima were the headquarters of the 59th Army, the 5th Division and the 224th Division, a recently formed mobile unit. The city was defended by five batteries of 7-and-8-centimeter anti-aircraft guns of the 3rd Anti-Aircraft Division, including units from the 121st and 122nd Anti-Aircraft Regiments and the 22nd and 45th Separate Anti-Aircraft Battalions. In total, over 40,000 military personnel were stationed in the city.
At 08:09 on August 6, 1945, Colonel Paul Tibbets started his bomb run and handed control of the Enola Gay over to his bombardier, Major Thomas Ferebee. The release at 08:15 (Hiroshima time) went as planned, and the Little Boy containing about 141 lb of uranium-235 took 44.4 seconds to fall from the aircraft flying at about 31,000 feet to a detonation height of about 1,900 feet above the city. Enola Gay traveled 11.5 mi before it felt the shock waves from the blast. Due to crosswind, the bomb missed the aiming point, the Aioi Bridge, by approximately 800 ft and detonated directly over Shima Surgical Clinic. It created a blast equivalent to 16 kilotons of TNT. The weapon was considered very inefficient, with only 1.7% of its material fissioning. The radius of total destruction was about 1 mile, with resulting fires across 4.4 square miles. People on the ground reported seeing a brilliant flash of light followed by a loud booming sound. Some 80,000 people, of whom 20,000 were soldiers, or around 30% of the population of Hiroshima, were immediately killed by the blast and resultant firestorm, leaving another 70,000 injured. The latter of whom were guaranteed to REMEMBER PEARL HARBOR.
Scroll down to view all of these photos. Left click on photo, hold and drag your mouse gently from left to right on the original photos and it will become the exact same location today. Continue to hold left click and move back to the left to compare the original scene.
Japanese artist Isao Hashimoto has created a beautiful, undeniably scary time-lapse map of the 2053 nuclear explosions which have taken place between 1945 and 1998, beginning with the Manhattan Project's "Trinity" test near Los Alamos and concluding with Pakistan's nuclear tests in May of 1998. This leaves out North Korea's three nuclear tests in this past decade. Each nation gets a blip and a flashing dot on the map whenever they detonate a nuclear weapon, with a running tally kept on the top and bottom bars of the screen. It starts really slow — if you want to see real action, skip ahead to 1962 or so — but the buildup becomes overwhelming.
Operation Crossroads was a series of two nuclear weapon tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll in mid-1946. They were the first nuclear weapon tests since Trinity in July 1945, and the first detonations of nuclear devices since the atomic bombing of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. The purpose of the tests was to investigate the effect of nuclear weapons on warships. The first test was Able. The bomb, named Gilda after Rita Hayworth's character in the 1946 eponymous film, was dropped from the B-29 Superfortress Dave's Dream of the 509th Bombardment Group on July 1, 1946, and detonated 520 feet (158 m) above the target fleet. It caused less than the expected amount of ship damage because it missed its aim point by 2,130 feet. The second test was Baker. The bomb, known as Helen of Bikini, was detonated 90 feet underwater on July 25, 1946. Radioactive sea spray caused extensive contamination.
Ken Onion is an American award-winning custom knifemaker based in Kaneohe, Hawaii, USA who invented the "SpeedSafe" assisted opening mechanism for Kershaw Knives. Ken Onion was the Premier Knife Designer for Kershaw Knives, and one of his greatest designs was the Blur, which normally sells for around $110. But every once in a while they go on sale for over half off and you can pick one up for $41 shipped from Amazon. An article in Blade Magazine asserts that celebrities, such as Steven Seagal, Steven Tyler, Nicolas Cage, Kid Rock, Pamela Anderson, Wayne Newton, Wayne LaPierre and Ziggy Marley collect custom knives made by Onion. And hell yes, I absolutely bought one, complete with state fucking sales tax. Fuckers.
ndtv exclusive: watch how hamas secretly assembles and fires rockets just prior to a ceasefire
the middle east conflict is framed as one of the most complex problems in the world. but, in reality, it's very simple.