The United States Marine Corps traces its institutional roots to the Continental Marines of the American Revolutionary War, formed by Captain Samuel Nicholas by a resolution of the Second Continental Congress on 10 November 1775, to raise 2 battalions of Marines. That date is regarded and celebrated as the date of the Marine Corps' birthday. At the end of the American Revolution, both the Continental Navy and Continental Marines were disbanded in April 1783. The institution itself would not be resurrected until 11 July 1798. At that time, in preparation for the Quasi-War with France, Congress created the United States Marine Corps. Marines had been enlisted by the War Department as early as August 1797 for service in the new-build frigates authorized by the Congressional "Act to provide a Naval Armament" of 18 March 1794, which specified the numbers of Marines to be recruited for each frigate. The action between Hornet and Penguin, the final engagement between British and American forces during the War of 1812, which led to the capture and destruction of the British ship by Marine infantrymen. The Marines' most famous action of this period occurred during the First Barbary War (1801–1805) against the Barbary pirates, when William Eaton and First Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon led eight Marines and 500 mercenaries in an effort to capture Tripoli. Though they only reached Derna, the action at Tripoli has been immortalized in the Marines' hymn and the Mameluke Sword carried by Marine officers.
During World War I veteran Marines served a central role in the late American entry into the conflict. The Marine Corps had a deep pool of officers and NCOs with battle experience, and experienced a small expansion. Here, the Marines fought their famed battle at Belleau Wood, creating the Marines' reputation in modern history. While its previous expeditionary experiences had not earned it much acclaim in the Western world, the Marines' ferocity and toughness in France earned them the respect of the Germans, who rated them of stormtrooper quality. Though Marines and American media reported that Germans had nicknamed them Teufel Hunden as meaning "Devil Dogs", there is no evidence of this in German records (as Teufelshunde would be the proper German phrase). Nevertheless, the name stuck.
In World War II, the Marines played a central role in the Pacific War. The battles of Guadalcanal, Bougainville, Tarawa, Guam, Tinian, Cape Gloucester, Saipan, Peleliu, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa saw fierce fighting between Marines and the Imperial Japanese Army. The island of Iwo Jima served as the next area of battle, which began on 19 February 1945. The Japanese had learned from their defeats in the Marianas campaign and prepared many fortified positions on the island, including pillboxes and underground tunnels. The Japanese put up fierce resistance, but American forces reached the summit of Mount Suribachi on 23 February. The mission was accomplished at very high losses, with 26,000 American casualties and 22,000 Japanese. By the end of the war, the Corps expanded from two brigades to six divisions, five air wings, and supporting troops, totaling about 485,000 Marines. In addition, 20 defense battalions and a parachute battalion were set raised. Nearly 87,000 Marines were casualties during World War II (including nearly 20,000 killed), and 82 were awarded the Medal of Honor.
The Korean War saw the hastily formed Provisional Marine Brigade holding the defensive line at the Pusan Perimeter. To execute a flanking maneuver, General Douglas MacArthur called on Marine air and ground forces to make an amphibious landing at Inchon. The successful landing resulted in the collapse of North Korean lines and the pursuit of North Korean forces north near the Yalu River until the entrance of the People's Republic of China into the war. Chinese troops surrounded, surprised and overwhelmed the overextended and outnumbered American forces. X Corps, which included the 1st Marine Division and the Army's 7th Infantry Division, regrouped and inflicted heavy casualties during their fighting withdrawal to the coast, now known as the Battle of Chosin Reservoir.
The Marine Corps served an important role in the Vietnam War taking part in such battles as Da Nang, Hue City, Con Thien and Khe Sanh. Individuals from the USMC operated in the Northern I Corps Regions of South Vietnam. While there, they were constantly engaged in a guerrilla war against the Viet Cong, along with an intermittent conventional war against the North Vietnamese Army (NVA). Portions of the Corps were responsible for the less-known Combined Action Program (CAP) that implemented unconventional techniques for counter-insurgency and worked as military advisers to the Republic of Vietnam Marine Corps. Marines were withdrawn in 1971, and returned briefly in 1975 to evacuate Saigon and attempt a rescue of the crew of the Mayagüez. Vietnam was the longest war for Marines; by its end, 13,091 had been killed in action, 51,392 had been wounded, and 57 Medals of Honor had been awarded. Due to policies concerning rotation, more Marines were deployed for service during Vietnam than World War II.
After the Vietnam War, the U.S. Marines resumed their expeditionary role, participating in the failed 1980 Iran hostage rescue attempt Operation Eagle Claw, the invasion of Grenada (Operation Urgent Fury) and the invasion of Panama (Operation Just Cause). On 23 October 1983, the Marine headquarters building in Beirut, Lebanon, was bombed, causing the highest peacetime losses to the Corps in its history (220 Marines and 21 other service members were killed) and leading to the American withdrawal from the country. The year 1990 saw Marines of the Joint Task Force Sharp Edge save thousands of lives by evacuating British, French and American nationals from the violence of the Liberian Civil War. During the Persian Gulf War, Marine task forces formed the initial core for Operation Desert Shield, while United States and Coalition troops mobilized, and later liberated Kuwait in Operation Desert Storm. Following the attacks on 11 September 2001, President George W. Bush announced the Global War on Terrorism. The stated objective of the Global War on Terror is "the defeat of Al-Qaeda, other terrorist groups and any nation that supports or harbors terrorists." Since then, the Marine Corps, alongside other military and federal agencies, has engaged in global operations around the world in support of that mission.
So in addition to the USMC birthday, we should take the time to wish a happy birthday to our friends over at Sesame Street (and by proxy, Bert and Ernie) which debuted in 1969, and happy yesterday to Mikhail Kalashnikov, inventor of the AK-47.
Greetings and salutations, Sir Ernie! US Navy aircraft carriers (and the LPH and LPD types (PDF WARNING!) used to carry Jarheads around) have their flight decks and hangar bays coated with a special polymer referred to as non-skid that assists in resisting damage due to aircraft operations. As well as aircraft maintainers dropping parts and tools and such. Also, the steel deck acts as a gigantic heat sink, especially when you consider the hull it's attached to. The heat sink action disperses the heat of the jet exhaust quite well. As for kicking up debris, before flight operations every flight deck gets a "FOD walkdown" from end to end. Basically you get a bunch of guys about shoulder to shoulder and the walk along, heads pointed down at the deck, looking for any stray bit of debris (pieces of safety wire, loose fasteners, etc.) There is a warning right before section 4-4 th at indicates that the exhaust from a Harrier hovering at less than 10 feet has an exhaust gas temperature of 200 degrees Fahrenheit at 25 feet distance, and flight deck personel should remain outside this radius. Hope this helps, somewhat. Former greenshirt of VAQ-131. Andrew
WMS Gaming is a manufacturer of slot machines, video lottery terminals and software to help casinos manage their gaming operations. It also offers online and mobile games. The company is based in Chicago, Illinois. WMS entered the reel-spinning slot machine market in 1994, and in 1996, it introduced its first hit casino slot machine, Reel ‘em In, a multi-line, multi-coin secondary bonus video slot machine. By 2001, it introduced its Wizard of Oz themed series of participation slots. Since then, WMS Gaming has continued to obtain licenses to manufacture gaming machines using several additional famous brands.
"Interstellar" is packed with amazing visuals and an intriguing plot, but it takes too fucking long to convey the film's Big Message.
Most people normally shed 50 to 100 hairs a day. But with about 100,000 hairs in the scalp, this amount of hair loss shouldn't cause noticeable thinning of the scalp hair. As people age, hair tends to gradually thin. he most common cause of hair loss is a hereditary condition called male-pattern baldness or female-pattern baldness. In genetically susceptible people, certain sex hormones trigger a particular pattern of hair loss. But hair loss may be a sign of a more serious medical condition that needs an evaluation by a dermatologist and possible treatment, because reasons for female hair loss can range from the simple and temporary -- a vitamin deficiency -- to the more complex, like an underlying health condition.
And if you love Starbucks' coffee, but hate shelling out $9 each time you walk through their fucking door, here is a step-by-step guide to making all of your Starbucks favorites right in the comfort of your very own home.
Trader Joe's is an American privately held chain of specialty grocery stores headquartered in Monrovia, California, in Greater Los Angeles. Trader Joe's was founded by Joe Coulombe and has been owned since 1979 by a German family trust established by Aldi Nord's owner Theo Albrecht. As of 16 May 2014, Trader Joe's had a total of 418 stores. Approximately half of its stores are in California, with the heaviest concentration in Southern California, but the company also has locations in 38 other states and Washington, D.C.